Introduction to the Book of Job
Table of Contents
- General Info
- Brief Survey
- Key Verses
- Author, Date and Recipients
- Historical Background & Timeline
- Themes, Purpose & Theology
- Interpretation Hints and Challenges
The Book of Job can be one of the easiest of the Old Testament (OT) Bible books to misinterpret, yet it can also be one of the most rewarding to read when properly understood. As we’ll explain below, we believe the events of the book occur shortly after the scattering of the population at Babel (Gen 11:1-9), thus making the events in Job some of the oldest in the Bible, with the exception of the first ten chapters of Genesis. Thus, the book reminds us that one of the most perplexing modern issues, the problem of the existence of evil, has been puzzling people from very early times. The basic question of the book is, “If God is loving and all-powerful. then why do the righteous suffer?”. The primary intention of the author of the book of Job is not to fully answer this question, but rather to encourage the reader to draw near and trust God in all situations, even when conditions are beyond our understanding. This book also confirms God as not only a macro-manager over the major events of our lives, but also as a micro-manager who is very interested in the small stuff as well.
The book also treats the reader to a glimpse of the throne of God and an dialog between God and Satan. The interaction reveals that Satan can go no further in his temptations and trials than our Sovereign God allows. Thus Paul can state that God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so that you can endure it (1Cor 10:13). Thus, God puts limits Job’s suffering.
One important aspect to mention, all human characters in the book are unaware of the interaction between God and Satan, which leads to many misguided statements in the various dialogs between Job and his friends. Note that this does not constitute a biblical error, since the author merely affirms the statement was made, but never affirms a misguided statement to be truth.
Despite its somewhat difficult interpretive challenges, the book of Job has been included in the earliest OT canonical lists. As the Hebrew canon further developed within time, Job was placed between Psalms and Proverbs in order of decreasing scroll length according to the Babylonian Talmud, Ber 57b. The Apostle Paul wrote his First Epistle to the Corinthians in the mid 50s of the first century AD. In verse 19 of chapter 3, he introduces a quote of Job 5:13 with the phrase , “it is written”, thus confirming that the Book of Job was considered canonical scripture by this time. No Judaic or Christian evidence exists that the canonicity of the book of Job was questioned or disputed in this era.
Regarding placement in our modern Christian Bible canons, Job is the first book in the Books of Poetry section (preceding Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Songs). This section follows the Books of the Law (Genesis – Deuteronomy) and Historical Books (Joshua – Esther), and precedes the Books of the Prophets (Isaiah–Malachi). In the Hebrew Bible, Proverbs and the four other poetic books are located in the third and last section known as the Writings (or Hagiographa), along with Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra–Nehemiah, and Chronicles.
[TOC] [Top of Page]
The book of Job opens by giving the heavenly perspective regarding Job’s misfortune and painful suffering. Job’s friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite arrive to offer consolation, but when Job complains of his condition (chapter 3), his friends sympathy turns to condemnation. This leads to several rounds of speeches / debates between Job and his friends that spans chapters 4 thru 37. His friends repeatedly urge Job to confess his sins and repent. Job continually responds to their charges by insisting that he is innocent and does not deserve the inflictions that he is suffering. After several rounds of debate, Job speaks of the wisdom of God (chapter 28) and makes his final defense (chapter 29-31).
At this point, Elihu son of Barakel the Buzite, who had accompanied Job’s friends, speaks. He had kept silent until this point since he was much younger than the others. Elihu became angry with Job because he thought Job was justifying himself rather than God. He was also angry with the three friends, because they had condemned him without refuting his arguments. Elihu argues that God may be disciplining Job for good reason, or may have a good purpose in allowing Job’s suffering that is beyond human understanding (chapters 32-37). Elihu position is more orthodox than the other friends, but still doesn’t provide the answers that Job is seeking.
After Job’s dialog with Ehilu, in which Job continues to call on God for an explanation, God finally speaks to Job. Yet, instead of providing answers, God hits Job with a series of questions that displays His power, authority and sovereignty over all his Creation, including humanity (chapters 38-41). In the final chapter 42, Job repents and renounces his right to question God. God then reaffirms Job’s faithfulness and righteousness, rebukes Job’s three older friends, and restores Job’s health, family, wealth, and blesses him with a long life.
[TOC] [Top of Page]
In the land of Uz there lived a man whose name was Job. This man was blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil. He had seven sons and three daughters, and he owned seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen and five hundred donkeys, and had a large number of servants. He was the greatest man among all the people of the East. (1:1-3)
One day the angels came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came with them... Then the LORD said to Satan, “Have you considered my servant Job? There is no one on earth like him; he is blameless and upright, a man who fears God and shuns evil.” “Does Job fear God for nothing?” Satan replied. “Have you not put a hedge around him and his household and everything he has? Y ou have blessed the work of his hands, so that his flocks and herds are spread throughout the land. But now stretch out your hand and strike everything he has, and he will surely curse you to your face.” The LORD said to Satan, “Very well, then, everything he has is in your power, but on the man himself do not lay a finger.” Then Satan went out from the presence of the LORD. (1:6,8-12)
One day when Job’s sons and daughters were feasting and drinking wine at the oldest brother’s house, a messenger came to Job and said, “The oxen were plowing and the donkeys were grazing nearby, and the Sabeans attacked and made off with them. They put the servants to the sword, and I am the only one who has escaped to tell you!” While he was still speaking, another messenger came and said, “The fire of God fell from the heavens and burned up the sheep and the servants, and I am the only one who has escaped to tell you!” While he was still speaking, another messenger came and said, “The Chaldeans formed three raiding parties and swept down on your camels and made off with them. They put the servants to the sword, and I am the only one who has escaped to tell you!” While he was still speaking, yet another messenger came and said, “Your sons and daughters were feasting and drinking wine at the oldest brother’s house, when suddenly a mighty wind swept in from the desert and struck the four corners of the house. It collapsed on them and they are dead, and I am the only one who has escaped to tell you!” At this, Job got up and tore his robe and shaved his head. Then he fell to the ground in worship and said: “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I will depart. The LORD gave and the LORD has taken away; may the name of the LORD be praised.” In all this, Job did not sin by charging God with wrongdoing. (1:13-22)
Then the LORD said to Satan, “Have you considered my servant Job? There is no one on earth like him; he is blameless and upright, a man who fears God and shuns evil. And he still maintains his integrity, though you incited me against him to ruin him without any reason.” “Skin for skin!” Satan replied. “A man will give all he has for his own life. But now stretch out your hand and strike his flesh and bones, and he will surely curse you to your face.” The LORD said to Satan, “Very well, then, he is in your hands; but you must spare his life.” So Satan went out from the presence of the LORD and afflicted Job with painful sores from the soles of his feet to the crown of his head. Then Job took a piece of broken pottery and scraped himself with it as he sat among the ashes. His wife said to him, “Are you still maintaining your integrity? Curse God and die!” He replied, “You are talking like a foolish woman. Shall we accept good from God, and not trouble?” In all this, Job did not sin in what he said. (2:3-10)
When Job’s three friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite, heard about all the troubles that had come upon him, they set out from their homes and met together by agreement to go and sympathize with him and comfort him. When they saw him from a distance, they could hardly recognize him; they began to weep aloud, and they tore their robes and sprinkled dust on their heads. Then they sat on the ground with him for seven days and seven nights. No one said a word to him, because they saw how great his suffering was. (2:11-13)
After this, Job opened his mouth and cursed the day of his birth. He said: “May the day of my birth perish, and the night that said, ‘A boy is conceived!’ That day—may it turn to darkness; may God above not care about it; may no light shine on it... “Why did I not perish at birth, and die as I came from the womb?” (3:1-4,11)
[Eliphaz:] “Consider now: Who, being innocent, has ever perished? Where were the upright ever destroyed? ...Blessed is the one whom God corrects; so do not despise the discipline of the Almighty.” (4:7, 5:17)
Then Job replied: “If only my anguish could be weighed and all my misery be placed on the scales! It would surely outweigh the sand of the seas— no wonder my words have been impetuous. The arrows of the Almighty are in me, my spirit drinks in their poison; God’s terrors are marshaled against me... “Oh, that I might have my request, that God would grant what I hope for, that God would be willing to crush me, to let loose his hand and cut off my life! Then I would still have this consolation— my joy in unrelenting pain— that I had not denied the words of the Holy One.” (6:1-4,8-10)
[Job:] “What is mankind that you make so much of them, that you give them so much attention, that you examine them every morning and test them every moment? Will you never look away from me, or let me alone even for an instant? If I have sinned, what have I done to you, you who sees everything we do? Why have you made me your target? Have I become a burden to you? Why do you not pardon my offenses and forgive my sins? For I will soon lie down in the dust; you will search for me, but I will be no more.” (7:17-21)
[Zophar:] “Can you fathom the mysteries of God? Can you probe the limits of the Almighty? They are higher than the heavens above—what can you do? They are deeper than the depths below—what can you know? Their measure is longer than the earth and wider than the sea.” (11:7-9)
[Job:] “To God belong wisdom and power; counsel and understanding are his. What he tears down cannot be rebuilt; those he imprisons cannot be released. If he holds back the waters, there is drought; if he lets them loose, they devastate the land.” (12:13-15)
[Job:] “Why do I put myself in jeopardy and take my life in my hands? Though he slay me, yet will I hope in him; I will surely defend my ways to his face. Indeed, this will turn out for my deliverance, for no godless person would dare come before him! ...Only grant me these two things, God, and then I will not hide from you: Withdraw your hand far from me, and stop frightening me with your terrors. Then summon me and I will answer, or let me speak, and you reply to me. How many wrongs and sins have I committed? Show me my offense and my sin. Why do you hide your face and consider me your enemy?” (13:14-16,20-24)
[Job:] “I know that my redeemer lives, and that in the end he will stand on the earth. And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God; I myself will see him with my own eyes—I, and not another. How my heart yearns within me!” (19:25-27)
And Job continued his discourse: “As surely as God lives, who has denied me justice, the Almighty, who has made my life bitter, as long as I have life within me, the breath of God in my nostrils, my lips will not say anything wicked, and my tongue will not utter lies. I will never admit you are in the right; till I die, I will not deny my integrity. I will maintain my innocence and never let go of it; my conscience will not reproach me as long as I live. (27:1-6)
[Job:] And God said to the human race, “The fear of the Lord—that is wisdom, and to shun evil is understanding.” (28:28)
[Elihu:] “So listen to me, you men of understanding. Far be it from God to do evil, from the Almighty to do wrong. He repays everyone for what they have done; he brings on them what their conduct deserves. It is unthinkable that God would do wrong, that the Almighty would pervert justice.” (34:10-12)
[Elihu:] “How great is God—beyond our understanding! The number of his years is past finding out... Listen to this, Job; stop and consider God’s wonders. Do you know how God controls the clouds and makes his lightning flash? Do you know how the clouds hang poised, those wonders of him who has perfect knowledge?” (36:26, 37:14-16)
KEY CHAPTERS: Job 38 -42 God Interrogates Job. Job Repents. God Rebukes Job’s Friends, Restores his Health and Fortunes, and Blesses his latter days.
Then the LORD spoke to Job out of the storm. He said: “Who is this that obscures my plans with words without knowledge? Brace yourself like a man; I will question you, and you shall answer me. “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone— while the morning stars sang together and all the angels shouted for joy?” (38:1-7)
The LORD said to Job: “Will the one who contends with the Almighty correct him? Let him who accuses God answer him!” Then Job answered the LORD: “I am unworthy—how can I reply to you? I put my hand over my mouth. I spoke once, but I have no answer— twice, but I will say no more. Then the LORD spoke to Job out of the storm: “Brace yourself like a man; I will question you, and you shall answer me. “Would you discredit my justice? Would you condemn me to justify yourself? Do you have an arm like God’s, and can your voice thunder like his?” (40:1-9)
Then Job replied to the LORD: “I know that you can do all things; no purpose of yours can be thwarted. You asked, ‘Who is this that obscures my plans without knowledge?’ Surely I spoke of things I did not understand, things too wonderful for me to know. “You said, ‘Listen now, and I will speak; I will question you, and you shall answer me.’ My ears had heard of you but now my eyes have seen you. Therefore I despise myself and repent in dust and ashes.” (42:1-6)
After Job had prayed for his friends, the LORD restored his fortunes and gave him twice as much as he had before. All his brothers and sisters and everyone who had known him before came and ate with him in his house. They comforted and consoled him over all the trouble the LORD had brought on him, and each one gave him a piece of silver and a gold ring. The LORD blessed the latter part of Job’s life more than the former part. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, a thousand yoke of oxen and a thousand donkeys. And he also had seven sons and three daughters. The first daughter he named Jemimah, the second Keziah and the third Keren-Happuch. Nowhere in all the land were there found women as beautiful as Job’s daughters, and their father granted them an inheritance along with their brothers. After this, Job lived a hundred and forty years; he saw his children and their children to the fourth generation. And so Job died, an old man and full of years. (42:10-16)
[TOC] [Top of Page]
Author and Date
The human author of the Book of Job is unknown. That said, we can examine the biblical evidence estimated dates to come up with several good possibilities. We actually have two separate dating issues with Job, the date of the book’s actual events, and the date that the book was actually written. We believe the most likely historical timeframe for the book’s events would be post-flood and development of the nations (Gen 8-10) and after the scattering of the population at Babel (Gen 11:1-9), and before or during the days of Abram / Abraham (Gen 11:10-32). Internal evidence in Job is consistent with this era, such as the long lifespan of Job (Job 42:16-17) being consistent with the pre-patriarchal or patriarchal era. There is no mention of the Nation of Israel or anything related to Jewish religion or culture mentioned. Instead, many customs mentioned in the book are consistent with those practiced by the patriarchs. Job’s wealth is measured in livestock rather than gold and silver (Job 1:3; 42:12), also consistent with the era of the patriarchs. Thus, based on this evidence, we can estimate the events of the book to be roughly 2200 BC.
Moving to the second date, that of its writing brings us closer to possibly identifying the book’s human author. We believe the two most probable timeframes to be either the time of Moses (late fifteenth century BC) or the time of David and Solomon (late eleventh or early tenth century BC). This would lead us to the three mentioned or possibly a sage in the courts of the latter two as the leading candidates. We eliminate Job and other possible authors prior to the time of Moses, since the author uses many references to God by His covenant name Yahweh, and God first revealed this name to Moses in Exodus 3 mid-fifteenth century BC. Incidentally, the book’s characters are quoted as using El (God), Shaddai (Almighty), or El Shaddai (God Almighty), which is consistent with the earlier date of the events of the book. Due to the book’s events in Heaven that were unknown to Job and his friends, the writing of the book would have required direct divine inspiration similar to Moses recording the events of the Creation in the first two chapters of Genesis. In addition, Moses lived in Midian, that bordered with Uz (the land in which Job lived) for forty years. This would appear to make Moses a possible candidate. The Jewish rabbinical view is that the book may have been written before the time of Moses and that he translated it into Hebrew. On a contrary note, the mention of iron tools and mining, not present before the Iron Age, may indicate a writing date in the twelfth century BC or later.
Regarding David or Solomon, we believe either is a possibility since there appear to be several allusions to passages found in Psalms and Proverbs. In addition, parts of Job are similar to the wisdom writings of Solomon found in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes Others suggest someone during the reign of King Hezekiah who also encouraged and promoted the study of wisdom literature. Many of the critics suggest a date after the exile or even as late as the first or second century BC. Fragments of Job found in the Dead Sea Scrolls disproved this later date. Furthermore, the prophet Ezekiel mentions Noah, Daniel and Job as champions of righteousness (Ezk 14:14,20). This suggests that the book of Job was in existence by mid-sixth century BC at the latest.
In the end, we must admit that, like the author of Hebrews, only God knows the human author of Job.
[TOC] [Top of Page]
Historical Background and Timeline
The events in the book of Job are likely some of the oldest in the Bible, with the exception of some recorded in Genesis. We believe the most likely historical timeframe for the book’s events would be post-flood and development of the nations (Gen 8-10) and after the scattering of the population at Babel (Gen 11:1-9), and before or during the days of Abram / Abraham (Gen 11:10-32). Some argue for a later date, but the many references to the flood (~2350 BC) using concise language of those who likely had personal knowledge of the cataclysmic event leads us to believe that Job and his friends may have been living during the lifetime of Noah and his sons. See “Author and Date” above for more info.
|~ 2350 BC
|Noah and the Flood
|~ 2250 BC
|Tower of Babel
|~ 2200 BC
|Possible approximate time of the Events of the Book of Job
|~ 2166 BC
|Birth of Abraham
|Birth of Jacob (aka Israel)
|~ 1525 BC
|Birth of Moses (Exodus 2)
|~ 1446 BC
|Moses leads Israel’s exodus from Egypt; Crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 1-18)
|~ 1408 BC
|Possible date for Writing of Job if Moses is Author
|~ 1406 BC
|Death of Moses
|David becomes King of United Israel and Judah
|~ 1000-975 BC
|Possible date for Writing of Job if David (or unknown sage) is Author
|Solomon becomes King of United Israel and Judah
|~ 970-931 BC
|Possible date for Writing of Job if Solomon (or unknown sage) is Author
|Building of the Temple
[TOC] [Top of Page]
Themes, Purpose and Theology
The key theme of the Book of Job is suffering. In particular, the book explores the age-old issue of why humans suffer despite the one true God’s goodness and His power over all things. The question of why, given these conditions, people suffer and evil appears to flourish unchecked has been the focus of intense thought and debate throughout the ages. Of course, the simple theological answer is that the presence of evil comes from the heavenly rebellion of Satan and his followers, and his subsequent deception of Adam and Eve, which plunged mankind into sin. The practical problem (that also involves some theological aspects) is much more complicated. One of the most puzzling aspects is the dilemma of attempting to make sense of why certain things happen to certain people or groups, in particular, why do the seemingly righteous suffer while the wicked appear to lead easy lives. Although the book of Job contains the primary biblical treatment of this issue, the author of the book of Job does not attempt to fully answer this question. Instead of offering a full theocracy (an attempt to resolve the difficulty of the presence of evil while God remains all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-good), he encourages the reader to draw near and trust God despite the circumstances, even when they are beyond our understanding. In addition, we know that Christ’s death and resurrection is God’s ultimate answer to the problem of evil.
The primary purpose of the author of Job is to encourage those who are suffering to hold fast to their faith in the one true God, despite not having a complete understanding of the circumstances. In Job’s particular case, this restoration and/or healing came in his life here on earth. For others, we might have to wait until our eternal life in heaven. In either case, God is faithful to bring renewal and restoration to all the saints. In the New Testament (NT), James, the brother of Jesus, wrote Brothers and sisters, as an example of patience in the face of suffering, take the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. As you know, we count as blessed those who have persevered. You have heard of Job’s perseverance and have seen what the Lord finally brought about. The Lord is full of compassion and mercy (Ja 5:10-11).
The primary theological element within the Book of Job is that of sin and
punishment. It is evident from the beginning of time that God does not
condone sin. During the likely time of Job, Abraham was pleading for the
wicked city Sodom, “Far be it from you to do such a
thing—to kill the righteous with the wicked, treating the righteous and the
wicked alike. Far be it from you! Will not the Judge of all the
earth do right?” (Ge 18:25). God stated that He would not
destroy the city if fifty righteous people were found living there.
Abraham negotiated God down to ten righteous people to avoid destruction, yet
even ten could not be found, so Abraham returned home (Gen 18:26-33). Note that
God may have been willing to spare the city for less people (perhaps for as
little as one righteous person), but Abraham stopped negotiating at ten, so God
destroyed the city (Gen 19:1-29).
Returning to Job, he and his friends all agreed that God cannot condone human sin, and that the wicked would receive the punishment that they rightfully deserve. The biblical principle of retribution states that God punishes the wicked and rewards the faithful as it is written, Be sure of this: The wicked will not go unpunished, but those who are righteous will go free (Prv 11:21). The Scriptures however, do not stipulate a required timeframe in which God must act, but we can be absolute certain that He will act at the appropriate time. Job’s friends also falsely assumed that since Job was in such great pain, he must be guilty of a great and terrible sin. Some might point to the “eye for eye” punishment of Deuteronomy 19:21, but this written for a few centuries after the events of Job, and this scripture refers to human-administered justice, not to God. In addition, although Job’s friends held a high view of God’s justice, they essentially left no room for His grace.
Although Job is aware that he has not committed some great sin against God, he has no better explanations for his plight than his friends. In his mind, he never doubts the existence, goodness or justice of God, but his is saddled by the same presuppositions as are his friends. Not that Job and his friends are totally incorrect, but they lack the perspective of knowing about the conversation on heaven between God and Satan. To question God as to why this was happening was not wrong, but to question the fairness of God’s justice and to hold that God owed him an explanation was crossing the line.
[TOC] [Top of Page]
Interpretation Hints and Challenges
In interpreting the Book of Job, we must first recognize the literary genre. The book should not be read as a historical narrative, or carefully reasoned prose. Instead the author employs a style known as reflective wisdom. This literary style primarily examine the puzzles and mysteries of life here on earth from a primarily human perspective, and often employs poetic dialogue. One of the most common theological subjects is that found in Job, God’s perceived justice that also considers the suffering of the saints and the problem of evil, although in the case within Job, the author does not provide a theodicy in the sense of fully defending the justice of God. Job’s friends can merely offer a human attempt to resolve this dilemma, but these efforts ultimately fail God also declares that the friends are in the wrong (42:7-9). Elihu’s intervention comes closer to the truth, but he also fails to provide an adequate answer. Although Job complained to God, he remained faithful in his trust declaring, “I know that my Redeemer lives” (19:25). The Book of Job teaches that, although it is beyond us to completely understand these issues in this life, all will be made clear when we get to heaven. One last note regarding the wisdom literary genre, references to grand historical and salvific events are typically implied rather than directly proclaimed. However, we should not take this as being divorced from the spiritual life of God’s people. On the contrary, the wisdom writers were well versed in the writings of Moses and David, among others, which greatly influenced the interpretations of their everyday experiences. Please see also Literary Genre of Wisdom and Poetry for additional genre information.
Another key to properly interpreting Job is to keep in mind that Job and his friends all are arguing from a limited perspective. In particular, they are all unaware of the conversation that occurred between God and Satan in heaven. Even today there are events in heaven that are unknown to us, but nonetheless have an effect on our lives. Moses wrote that The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our children forever... (Dt 29:29). We all know of situations where the righteous are temporarily suffering while the wicked appear to be prospering. Yet like Job, we do not have the complete picture, so we must persevere in the faith and draw nearer to God, who is worthy of our trust, and know that the righteous will be ultimately blessed. For some, this may come in this life. For others, it may not come until we get to heaven, but we can be assured that the blessings will come.
Hint for Reading Job
The first couple of times I read through Job, I had some difficulty
understanding it. In particular, the historical perspective in the first
two chapters was clear, as was the last five chapters with the God and Job
interaction, God’s rebuke of Job’s friends, and the restoration of Job’s family,
health and prosperity. Unfortunately, I would get hung up on the extra
long dialogs between Job and his friends (chapters 3-37). At some point I
ran across the following advice from Charles Ryrie’s
Ryrie’s Concise Guide to the Bible. Dr Ryrie suggested that after
reviewing the broad outline of the book, read chapters 1 and 2, then skip to
chapters 38-42. After getting a good grasp of the first and last section,
go back and read through the dialogs between Job and his friends (chapters
3–37). I would add that in reading the dialogs, keep in mind the limited
perspectives of Job and his friends.
[TOC] [Top of Page]
The book of Job can be divided into three basic sections. The first two chapters give us the historical background by introducing us to Job, the main character, his favored status before God, dialog in heaven between God and Satan, and Job’s resulting trials. The second section (chapters 3 thru 37) gives us the various dialogs between Job and his friends. In the final section (chapters 38-42) we witness God’s speeches and the restoration of Job.
|1:1 - 1:5
|Initial Status of Job and his Family
|1:6 - 2:6
|Satan Debates with God and Gets Permission to Test Job
|2:7 - 2:13
|Job Despairs over his Losses; Job’s three Friends arrive in Reaction to the News
|Job’s Opening Speech Lamenting his Condition
|4:1 - 5:27
|Eliphaz’s First Speech urging Job to Repent
|6:1 - 7:21
|Job’s reply to Eliphaz questions his Trials, expresses Futility, and asks for Sympathy
|8:1 - 8:22
|Bildad rebukes Job and urges him to Repent
|9:1 - 10:22
|Job ratifies the Truth of God’s Justice, but Maintains his Innocence
|11:1 - 11:20
|Zophar’s first speech urges Job to Repent and get right with God
|12:1 - 14:22
|Job responds that his Friends are wrong and hope that God will Speak to him
|15:1 - 15:35
|Eliphaz accuses Job of ignoring Wisdom, stating the his own words Condemn him
|16:1 - 17:26
|Job accuses his friends of being lousy Comforters, of offering him no Hope
|18:1 - 18:21
|Bildad maintains that Job is getting what he deserves
|19:1 - 19:29
|Job declares that he knows “My Redeemer Lives”, indicating he believes that he will be Vindicated
|20:1 - 20:29
|Zophar accuses Job of rejecting God by questioning His justice, and stating the Wicked suffer immediately
|21:1 - 21:34
|Job counters Zophar’s argument by noting the the Wicked often flourish on Earth but will face judgment after death
|22:1 - 22:30
|Eliphaz pronounces Job Guilty of criticizing God’s Justice
|23:1 - 24:25
|Job expresses his desire for a Hearing before God
|25:1 - 25:6
|Bildad rejects Job’s arguments and Proclaims that a man cannot be Righteous before God
|26:1 - 26:14
|Job reflects on the Majesty and Mystery of the Ways of God
|27:1 - 28:28
|Job Reaffirms his Righteousness and and that Man is unable to completely understand God’s Wisdom
|29:1 - 31:40
|Job reflects on the Past and Present Events of his life and his wishes for the Future
|32:71 - 34:37
|Elihu the youth speaks; Honestly questions both Job and his Friends
|35:1 - 37:24
|Elihu urges Job to wait patiently for God’s timing, sand upholds the Mercy and Majesty of the Lord
|38:1 - 40:5
|God’s First Response to Job: Interrogates Job regarding Knowledge; Job has no Answer and is Silenced
|40:6 - 41:34
|God Continues to Challenge Job regarding of His Creation
|42:1 - 42:6
|Job Repents before God
|42:7 - 42:9
|God Rebukes Job’s friends and has Job Pray for Them
|42:10 - 42:17
|God Restores Job’s Fortunes, Health, and his Family, and Blessed his Latter Days
[TOC] [Top of Page]